Why Plans for Redrawing the Middle East Will Fail?

30 01 2016

31_Adnan-Oktar

by Harun Yahya

Condoleezza Rice, the former US Secretary of State, was the first person to ever use the term ‘the New Middle East’ during a public address in Tel Aviv back in June of 2006. She had opted to use this new concept, instead of the more popular ‘Greater Middle East’. Interestingly enough, soon after that speech a retired US Army Lieutenant Colonel, Ralph Peters showed what this new term meant with a map in his book entitled ‘Never Quit the Fight’ that was released on July 20, 2006.

Lt. Col. Peters is a former high-ranking Defense Department officer, whose ideas are widely sought after by military circles. He worked as a Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence of the US Army and he’s written various books and articles on foreign policy and strategy. Although the US Defense Department never officially accepted Lt. Col. Peters’s map, it is a known fact that the map is currently being used in a training program in NATO’s Military College.1

This map, which could be considered the latest one in a series of maps that sought to redesign the Middle East over the past century, shows the final state of the region that certain Western circles desire to see. The New Middle East Map, in other words, the final stage in the Greater Middle East Project, is almost like a 21st Century version of Sykes-Picot, a secret treaty signed with the intent on sharing the former Ottoman lands after WWI. It also corroborated the accuracy of certain theories, which up until then seemed like just conspiracy theories. Apparently, in the final stage of the project, the respective parties didn’t care as much about hiding their true intentions.

The borders predicted by the 2006 map seem eerily close to the truth today; in fact, so much so the journal ‘The Atlantic’, decided to feature the map again on June 19, 2014 with an ominous title ‘The New Map of the Middle East“, only years after covering it in a 2008 issue. The journal even claims that the separations predicted by the map are inevitable.

The name Greater Middle East Project was first used by the Bush administration, the 43rd US President, and was discussed during the G-8 summit in 2004. However, it wasn’t a new concept; on the contrary, it was just a new name for an old, long-term project that first began in the late 19thCentury.

The project extended to Morocco in the West, Pakistan in the East, the Black Sea coasts of Turkey in the North, and Yemen in the South: In other words, the most volatile, or ‘the most tampered, the most provoked and most easily-ignited region of the world’, scene to countless wars, conflicts, military coups, separatist moves, terror and instability. Another important thing about the region is that it houses the largest, most central and most strategic part of the Islamic world.

Although the implementation and publicization methods have varied from time to time, neither the essence nor the true goal of the project has ever really changed. Since the beginning, its main purpose, determined by certain deep states of Western countries, has been to prevent an Ottoman-style union and alliance between the regional countries and peoples, thus ultimately preventing a Union of Islam. Surely, the hopes of obtaining control over the natural resources and natural wealth of the region came as an added bonus. Furthermore, the prospect of getting astronomical deals for certain arms dealers, due to relentless wars and conflicts, wouldn’t hurt either.

By the end of the 1800s, after the Ottoman administration made a deal with the German Deutsche Bank to extract oil in Mosul and Kirkuk; the British immediately built an indirect partnership with the said Germany company in order to be a part of the Middle East oil scene. The fastest developing country of the era, the USA, was soon to follow. In other words, the eyes of the West suddenly turned to the rich oil sources in the Middle East, just as the Ottoman Empire was struggling to stay alive.

Before late, Britain and France parceled out the former Ottoman lands in the Middle East, marking the first official and wide-scale step towards the Great Middle East Project. Following that, the project was implemented gradually until today, despite countless revisions, modifications, improvements and changes.

The decision passed by the US Congress in 1957, widely known as the ‘Eisenhower Doctrine’, but originally called ‘Preserving the Peace and Stability in the Middle East’ had the same approach to the Middle East as today’s GMEP. In fact, the phrase ‘New World Order’ used by former US President George H. W. Bush in a press conference in August 1990, was nothing other than a fresh attempt to familiarize the public with the GMEP. The ‘Clash of Civilizations’, the famous work of Samuel Huntington, a political analyst and a former advisor to US Department of Defense, in the journal Foreign Affairs, also laid the philosophical foundations of the ongoing Greater Middle East Project. This piece, published in 1993, was later turned into a comprehensive book shaped around the same ideas.

“The Project for the New American Century”, PNAC, a Washington DC based think-tank that operated between 1997-2006 and known for their advisory roles in military policies, the Iraq War and national security, and known for their lobbying efforts among high-ranking US officials, was also amongst the top theoreticians behind the ‘New World Order’ and ‘GMEP’. Gary Schmitt, the former director of PNAC, said that they no longer needed to carry on and they had already done their job and made the government accept their views.

Indeed, that year, the said ‘New Middle East’ concept and the detailed map of this new Middle East surfaced. It was followed by the Arab Spring that pushed many Arab countries into an era of relentless turmoil including Syria, Libya, Yemen and others. Undoubtedly, the Arab Spring marked another serious step towards the realization of the map.

Many Western deep states believe that they are getting closer to achieving the map that has been their dreams for centuries now. However, one thing is certain: dreams and covert plans do not always go as planned. The history is full of sinister plans that took a lot of effort to build, but went awry nevertheless.

It is entirely possible that more challenges are ahead for the Middle East. Yet, the complete sundering of the Islamic world and a subsequent prevention of the Islamic Union is not to be found in destiny. There might be difficulties and problems, but the map that will come out of it is likely not going to be one the certain deep states have been hoping for.

1- www.globalresearch.ca/plans-for-redrawing-the-middle-east-the-project-for-a-new-middle-east/3882
2- en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_for_the_New_American_Century

 

The writer has authored more than 300 books translated in 73 languages on politics, religion and science. He may be followed at @Harun_Yahya and www.harunyahya.com


Toxic America

27 01 2016

By Sami Jamil Jadallah

Let us use the $50 billion designated for Israel as a down payment and start fixing our toxic water system all over America.

Screen Shot 2016-01-27 at 5.13.36 PM

Michigan Water

Watching the news from Flint, Michigan you would think you are in one of the poorest cities in Africa with reddish/yellowish toxic drinking water. This is America today; a country that has not only toxic water, but toxic politics as well.

Screen Shot 2016-01-27 at 5.14.05 PM

Flint, Michigan Water

The Flint, Michigan water system, neglected for a long time, carries toxic poisonous water from the Flint River, which in turn carries water from Lake Huron. The pipes are so corroded, they cause high levels of lead to leak into the drinking water.

Screen Shot 2016-01-27 at 5.21.13 PM

Water in Israel Settlements… compliment of the US Congress

There has been no investment in the drinking water system for over 50 years. Rather than fixing and investing in a new water system, the city kept pumping “orthophosphate” to prohibit corrosion.

For a long time, the water of Flint smelled and looked bad, was smelly and tasted funny, and the government knew about it years before. I guess adding extra “lead” in the residents’ blood is okay.

One can’t be sure if the delay in taking effective action has to do with the fact that Blacks are 57% of the population and 41% of the residents live beneath the poverty line. One has to wonder if the majority of the city where White and affluent. Poor Whites are treated no differently from poor Blacks. Just take a look at Appalachia.

However, the story of Flint is not unique. America’s entire infrastructure is falling apart. The American Society of Civil Engineers gave our infrastructure falling marks. This is how the American Society of Civil Engineers graded America in 2013.

“Energy D, Transit D, Ports C, Aviation D, Levees D-, Schools D, Roads D, Inland Water Way D-, Waste Water D, Hazardous Waste D, Public Ports C, Rails C+, Bridges C+, Solid Waste B, Drinking Water D, Dams D.”

While American politicians are debating “important “ issues, such as what to do with “Muslims” and “immigrants” legal and illegal, and what to do with ISIS (kick their ass as the revived and resuscitated Sarah Palin suggested), no one is looking at our falling apart schools, dams, drinking waters and our failing infrastructure, which in fact is the biggest threat to our national economy.

With solid renovated infrastructure, which is the backbone of national economy and business, America will soon be in deep trouble. We handed close to a trillion dollars to the criminal crooks of Wall Street, but we do not have the money to rescue our towns and cities from falling apart infrastructure.

Not only our drinking water is toxic, but also our politics, our national institutions and our financial system are toxic. Too big to fail, too big to tax, too powerful to collect tax from, too powerful to force them to keep jobs at home.

We see divisions between the few rich and the hundreds of millions of poor. We see divisions between Left and Rights in politics. We see divisions along racial lines; we see divisions between citizens and police, between citizens and politicians. These divisions are incited by toxic politics. We want to solve the world’s problems while neglecting our own issues at home.

We want to “Kick Ass” while neglecting the very basic things that makes America the powerful nation it is. More money for the military will not make our country strong while the very basis of our economy is falling apart. Ah, with all due respect to our fellow military, but when was the last time we won a war?

We spend tens of millions on the Senate hearing on Benghazi, but we fail to spend one million investigating the false wars and the trillions of dollars wasted on “personal wars” and wars on behalf of an ally that kills and murders our sailors.

The thousands of brave soldiers who died and the tens of thousands injured in these stupid reckless criminal wars are of no importance and no priorities to our national politicians, and not worthy of having open public hearings on the whys and how’s we went to war?

Our national elected officials have no time to look into and investigate “the falling apart America”, but have much time to debate and hold public hearings on issues for the rich and powerful.

Let us use the $50 billion designated for Israel and start fixing our own falling apart infrastructure. Let us give Flint the money it needs to fix its water system rather than giving it to Israel to build swimming pools in illegal settlements built on stolen land.

Let us put America first for a change.

___________


There Is No Shiite-Sunni Enmity, Only Provocation

23 01 2016

Screen Shot 2016-01-23 at 21.48.39

by Harun Yahya

There is no doubt that one of the most cunning and dangerous techniques employed by deep global forces in the scope of the project aimed at dividing the Islamic world into small, weak and ineffective subcomponents is “the incitement of sectarian differences.”

Bloody and provocative sectarian-based acts recently perpetrated in various Islamic countries, such as Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Yemen, have once again shown that this cunning stratagem is always afoot.

Efforts are being made unceasingly to create a climate of artificial enmity and conflict between Shiite and Sunni Muslims through such acts of provocation and then to spread it throughout the entire Islamic world. Some examples of provocative sectarian actions that have occurred in recent months are as follows:

– Twenty-one people were martyred and dozens more injured in an attack on a Shia mosque in the Saudi Arabian city of Qatif last May. At least four Muslims were martyred in a suicide bombing of another Shia mosque a week later.

– The following month, sectarian provocation spread to Kuwait. A suicide bombing was perpetrated against the Shia al-Imam al-Sadiq Mosque while some 2,000 people were at prayer; 24 Muslims were martyred and at least eight more injured.

– A 14-year-old boy was martyred when a Shia mosque in the Bangladeshi city of Dhaka was bombed last October, and a further 80 people were injured.

– In that same month, three separate sectarian terror attacks took place in Pakistan in the space of a single week. Twenty-two people were martyred in a suicide attack on Shiite Muslims assembled for the Karbala ceremonies in Sindh’s Jacobabad district.

– In the same week, 10 Muslims were martyred in an attack on a Shia mosque in Balochistan and another 11 when a bomb exploded in a passenger bus in the capital of that province, Quetta.

These recent acts of provocation are just a few instances of sectarian violence and terror that has been going on in the Islamic world for more than a decade and is intended to set brother against brother. To turn to when these acts of provocation first began:

Some 2,000 Muslims have so far been martyred as a result of Shiite-Sunni violence and terror in the province of Balochistan on the Iranian border. The interesting thing is that although there were differences of opinion between Shiites and Sunnis, they lived as brothers with no notable acts of violence up until the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan in 2001.

Similarly, bombings in Mosul, Baghdad and Basra in the wake of the U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003 raised Sunni-Shiite tensions to the highest levels. Tens of thousands of Muslims, both Shiite and Sunni, were martyred.

The growing tensions between the Shiite Hizbullah and Sunni Hirari groups in Lebanon that began in the early 2000s reached a peak with the assassination of Prime Minister Rafic Hariri in 2005. In 2013, former minister of finance, Mohamad Chatah, was also assassinated. This was intended to set Hariri’s supporters against Hizbullah once again.

It is also a known fact that the power struggle in Bahrain following the Arab Spring was between Shia and Sunni groups.

Sectarian differences, particularly between Shia and Sunni, in almost all countries in the Islamic world have been used to set Muslims against one another and to incite civil strife and disorder in Islamic nations; they are still being used to that end. Some politicians in Islamic countries, so-called religious preachers and media figures play a prominent role in such acts of provocation.

The fact that Shiite-Sunni division represents the fundamental dynamic behind the fighting and tensions in the Islamic world appears in numerous Western resources on analysis and strategy.

The latest instance in Yemen is significant in showing how the sectarian factor has now transformed from causing internal disorders within a country to setting Islamic countries fighting against one another.

In brief, there are two main aims behind these foul acts of provocation intended to sow the seeds of hatred between members of different Islamic sects:

First, to destabilize and weaken Islamic countries by inciting conflict and domestic turmoil and thus to prepare the way for them to fall apart and cease to exist.

Second, to incite enmity among Islamic countries by polarizing them on the basis of sectarian divisions and to divide Muslims into two opposite poles aiming to do away with the other, a Shia front led by Iran, Iraq, Syria and Lebanon, and a Sunni one including such countries as Turkey, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan. The current conflicts in Iraq, Syria and Yemen are essentially prototypes for such a global conflict.

At this point, religious and political leaders of the Islamic world have important responsibilities in terms of unification, moderation and showing the way. We can cite the words of two major leaders as examples of this approach:

During a visit to Iran last April Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan said:

“I don’t make any discrimination, I don’t say, ‘Shia people died, Sunni people died’. For me, there are only human beings – Muslims – dying there.”[i]

Iran’s religious leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei issued the following significant message in an address last May:

“Enemies of Islam are trying to create ethnic and religious discord between Muslims… To the enemy; there is no any difference between Shia and Sunni.”[ii]

Muslims who believe in the same God, Book and Prophet, who pray in the same direction and in the same mosques, are all brothers, irrespective of their views, sectarian membership or ethnic group. God makes it a sin for them to be enemies. The reward for slaughtering one another in such enmity is everlasting hell, a terrible end.

The disasters currently afflicting Muslims stem from their being divided and fragmented, in blatant contravention of God’s commandment. The only salvation lies in their abandoning that sin and acting as a single body by binding themselves to one another with ties of love and brotherhood.

 


[i] http://www.el-balad.com/1475027
[ii] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D-dzFhNm0IA

 

The writer has authored more than 300 books translated in 73 languages on politics, religion and science. He may be followed at @Harun_Yahya and www.harunyahya.com


Executions Will Only Drag Bangladesh into Darkness

14 01 2016

Screen Shot 2016-01-14 at 15.57.42

by Harun Yahya

The world has come to a point that Muslims are killing one another, while the Western countries also take part in this terrifying conflict. Given the fact that there are extremely large numbers of Muslims dying in many places around the globe, some Muslim states are handing out death sentences to individuals for the alleged crimes committed years or even decades ago, without batting an eyelash.  One of these countries is Bangladesh.

Yesterday’s news reports were dreadful for Muslims, as well as for the entire humanity. The death sentence issued for the 73 year-old Mullah Rahman Nizami, the leader of Jamaat-e-Islami was upheld in Bangladesh. Since 1973, a total of 156 criminals with death sentences were declared not guilty and released, this demonstrates that such executions are clearly ill judged.

That being so, we kindly request from Bangladesh’s Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina to leave behind the incidents that took place 45 years ago in all respects, and strive for a Bangladesh where love, peace, harmony, and democracy will utterly prevail. There could be a small minority group that is maybe endorsing to uphold the death sentences, but such a loveless approach could in the future raise serious problems for her and against her country. Forgiveness, and a loving, friendly conduct will help in resolving all the issues.

I also would like to set out a humble request from my brother Mullah Rahman Nizami, the leader of Jamaat-e-Islami who has made significant contributions to the Islamic world as a scholar. For the sake of all his Muslim brothers who have great love for him and most importantly for the approval of God – according to the news in the media – if there is any possibility for his death penalty to be reverted to life imprisonment, he should make an apology. Making a statement of apology will definitely not impair his honor since the entire world is very well aware of Mullah Nizami’s devotion to God. Because when a Muslim is under risk of death, then he can speak out what is asked from him. Everyone would know that this was a necessary way of action to save a life.

At the time of our Prophet (pbuh), the Companions also passed through severe hardship and were tortured immensely in the Meccan society. In order to save themselves from such torture, the Prophet advised his Muslim brothers to speak denial in words when they were threatened with death. This incident, which is considered to be the reason for the revelation of verse 106 of Surat an-Nahl, took place as follows:

“Those who reject God after having had faith – except for someone forced to do it whose heart remains at rest in its faith – but as for those whose breasts become dilated with disbelief, anger from God will come down on them. They will have a terrible punishment.”

Ammar (ra) whose family was martyred by means of torture says that he has no faith to free himself from torture. Then one approaches the Prophet and claims that Ammar has abandoned religion. The Messenger of God responds to him: “No, Ammar is faithful from head to foot. Faith is in his flesh and bone.” Meantime, Ammar arrives and the Prophet tells him the following: “If they force you again, you may seem to agree with them in words.” (Ibn Kathir, Tafsir Qur’an al-‘Azim, Istanbul, 1985, IV, 524; Elmalılı Hamdi Yazır, ibid, Istanbul 1936, IV, 3130, 3131)

In addition to these, asking for forgiveness does not imply the acceptance of the alleged crimes. Muslims who are very well informed and knowledgeable of the verses of the Qur’an and the Sunnah of our Prophet would definitely understand the circumstances and never be upset with this. Muslims have total trust in the faith of Mullah Rahman Nizami and would never be suspicious of him. Besides, making an excuse would never be degrading, on the contrary, by carrying out such conduct, my brother Mullah Rahman Nizami will be carrying out this commandment of God and will be able to serve in the way of God’s religion for a longer time.

Her Excellency Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina,

In order to establish a perfectly secular, modern and progressive Bangladesh, which is your goal, I believe your conduct with gentleness in forgiving these death penalties is highly noteworthy. Your virtuous pronouncement would find great appreciation in the international public opinion, and history will never forget your exemplary graceful conduct.

 

The writer has authored more than 300 books translated in 73 languages on politics, religion and science. He may be followed at @Harun_Yahya and www.harunyahya.com


The Shorting of America

10 01 2016

Americans, mostly “White” are angry and for good reasons. As we have seen from the rallies held by the Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump among other candidates, however angry for the wrong reasons.

Screen Shot 2016-01-10 at 10.51.08 PM

Donald Trump deliberately chooses towns and cities that are suffering sever economic collapse with high unemployment and lower education levels, resulting from the dislocation of resources and changing economies that left millions of Americans mostly with limited technical and industrial skills, unemployed and of course angry.

The promise by Donald Trump and many other presidential candidates of jobs, are fraudulent promises because jobs now and in the future are for the skilled and highly technically trained labor force and unless there is a massive “retraining” of millions of Americans in future skills the candidates are lying to the voters, because there will never be jobs for those unemployed, unless they decide to compete for many jobs immigrant Latinos have now. Immigrants from Asia and the Middle East come to America highly motivated for higher education, with excellent basic education and are the ones competing with the best educated in America. They are not taking the jobs of “unemployed” Americans.

Low-level industrial jobs such as those in furniture, textiles, basic manufacturing and raw steel are gone forever and will not come back to the US now or in the future, with Bangladesh and Central American countries competing for such jobs.

Europe, especially countries like Germany, Switzerland, Scandinavia, have advanced technical educations that compete with college educations in terms of income and social status certainly industrial skills. America never did develop a highly futuristic industrial technical training that qualifies those who lost their jobs allowing transformation of the American labor force to the future economies.

It is so unfortunate that the anger for the most part is directed toward “immigrants and Muslims” and not to failing political, financial and industrial institutions that ushered this economic collapse. Low skilled labor forces in states such as Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, the Carolinas even in the Northeast will never see the jobs that allowed them to maintain what they used to have in the 50s, 60s, or 70s of Middle Class status. Those days are gone forever.

To bad many of the presidential candidates are unfit and unqualified in the new economies have focused their attention to social issues such as “abortion and gun control” when in fact their attention should be on the jobs of the future. These social issues do not and will not bring unemployed Americans to the Middle Class status.

Back in the 1910-20s the so-called “Roaring Twenties” major banks such as Chase Bank and National City Bank (Citibank) began to sell securities along with traditional banking business such as loans and deposits.

This business practice lead to a “ stock market boom” reaching the “bubble territories” with financial institutions manipulating the markets, developing “organized pools” of worthless securities dumping it on “unsuspecting suckers”.

Most Americans tend to forget it was President Bill Clinton with his team of NYC economic advisors the likes of Robert Rubin, Larry Summer at the Treasury and Alan Greenspan at the Feds that ushered the new era of Laissez-Faire allowing Big Banks and other major financial institutions to make fools out of Congress and robbing millions of Americans out of their life time savings, and forcing tens of millions out of their jobs. It was a deliberate criminal acts of fraud, that no one went to jail for.

Democrat, Bill Clinton working with a very conservative Republican Congress lead by Senator Phil Gramm organized the repeal of the Glass –Steagall Act which for over seven decades kept financial institutions in check, allowing once more the Roaring Twenties and the collapse of the financial system one more time.

Bill Clinton in an interview with Fareed Zakaria aired on CNN back in October 2013 blamed the entire collapse on Republicans “ they made me do it” stating

“ What happened? The American people gave the Congress to a group of very conservative Republicans, when they passed bills with veto proof majority with lots of Democrats voting for it, that I couldn’t stop, all of a sudden we turn out to be maniacal derugulators. I mean, common on- I know Senator Warren said the other day admitted when she introduced a bill to reinstate the division between commercial and investment banks, she admitted that the repeal of the Glass-Steagall did not cause one single solitary financial institutions to fail”. Bill Clinton simply failed to state that the big banks did not fail because the government with tax dollars bailed them out.

It was the same Bill Clinton who on signing the 1999 Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, stated, “This is a day we can celebrate as an American day. The Glass –Steagall law is no longer appropriate for the economy we live in. Today what we are doing is modernizing the financial services industry, tearing down these outdated laws and granting banks significant new authority, this is good day for America”. Together with Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1994, Community Banking Development Act, the 103 Congress set the stage for the Shorting of America.

It is so ironic that while both the Executive and Legislative Branch working together with Wall Street to allow Wall Street more opportunity to defraud and fleece America, both failed to work with the “industry” to plan for the future jobs, jobs that requires highly skilled labor force, motivations to go to school and universities and the setting up of an industrial base education as we see in advanced industrial countries such as Germany and Switzerland. Presidential candidates will lie all the way to the White House while American voters gullible as ever will cry all the way to the Poor House.


One of the Causes of the Collapse of the Ottoman Empire: Darwinist Education

4 01 2016

Screen Shot 2016-01-04 at 16.55.25

by Harun Yahya

One of the most important factors that led the Ottoman Empire to collapse was Darwinist education, which was prevalent at almost all schools. During that time period, Darwinist philosophy was widely published and accepted by the Ottoman Empire administrators.

Darwinism is the entire content of superstitions, which are presented as accurate scientific facts. The main target of the supporters this ideology is to defend a lie purporting that the universe solely consists of matter and in this way extinguish people’s belief in a Creator. For the sake of defending materialistic philosophy, millions of scientific evidences that refute evolution theory were suppressed and unscientific Darwinist delusions were presented as proven truth.

The Darwinist-materialist clan tries to impose some fictional stories as scientific facts on people. In order to achieve their goals, all around the world, they are targeting schools, aiming to “enlighten” and distract young people in their belief in God, who will be the future active power of their societies as they replace the older generations.

During the reign of Sultan Abdülhamit II, no actions were taken to refute this superstitious philosophy denying God.  The libraries of the universities, colleges and schools turned into Darwinism-materialism centers.  Let us set some examples;

Since 1805, more than 200 books were translated into Arabic and Turkish within the context of Westernization.  All of these books of the time were about materialism and Darwinism.

·        In 1826, School of Medicine was opened.  The library of the school was famous with its books on materialism.

The education was based on Darwinism at Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Adliye-i Şahane (Imperial School of Medicine). All the books regarding materialism including Darwinism were taught. Mc Fairlane who had visited the school in 1847, wrote in his diaries: (referring to the library of the school) I HAVE NOT SEEN SUCH A COLLECTION CONSISTED OF BOOKS ON PURE MATERIALISM FOR AGES. There was this book on the couch. I took a look at it.  THIS WAS THE PARIS EDITION OF THE BOOK OF BLASPHEMY NAMED ‘THE SYSTEM OF THE NATURE’.  I CLEARLY UNDERSTOOD THAT IT WAS FREQUENTLY READ AS MANY PARTS WERE MARKED INSIDE. These parts especially read the nonsense of believing in God and the impossibility of immortality of the spirit via mathematics…”

·        Hoca Tahsin, the rector of Darürfünun (House of Multiple Sciences. Today it is called University of Istanbul), was founded in 1900, was sent to Europe by Grand Vizier Reşid Mehmed Pasha for training purposes. On his return it was seen that he adopted Darwinist and materialist ideologies. He became one of the most famous materialist figures of Ottoman Empire. He imported many books containing Darwinist and materialist views from France for the library of Darülfunun (University of Istanbul). Then this library turned into a center of Darwinism.

·        Galatasaray High School and Robert College that opened in the mid – 1800s became centers disseminating Darwinist and materialist views.

·      From the mid-1800s till the end of First World War (within approx. 68 years), 70 books were published regarding Darwinism and materialism. As well as these books, many journals were published on disseminating Darwinism.

fft17_mf334558

These are  some of the books of that period about Darwinism and materialism

Darwinism (Written by Subhi Ethem)

Lamarckism (Written by Subhi Ethem)

Evolution and Rules  (Written by Ethem Necdet)

The Religion of a Natural Scientist (a book by Haeckel) (Translated by Baha Tevfik)

The Wisdom in Defending Materialism  (written by Ahmet Mithat)

Matter and Force (Written by Baha Tevfik)

The Serial Universe (written by Ahmet Mithat)

Life and Philosophy of Nietzsche (written by Baha Tevfik)

These are some of the articles taught in schools of that period:

At Darulfünun (the old University of Istanbul), a special pulpit was established to teach natural science. EVOLUTION THEORY WAS TAUGHT THROUGH THIS PULPIT.

One of the articles read at the pulpit was The History of Creation written by Hoca Tahsin, which reads: “According to the rule of evolution dominating all the universe and life, the universe will become ripened in the future…”

Some articles by Ahmet Mithat were also introduced at the pulpit. All of these articles were about evolution. Some of the titles of these were: Adam and Orangutan, The Feelings of Animals, What if human beings live isolated.

The topic of the book called What if human beings live isolated reads that human beings all have animal backgrounds, have evolved in the process of time and reached present level. If a baby lived among animals, he would definitely show animal like features.

Ahmet Mithat wrote an article titled Human Beings appear in the World. It was also taught at the schools of that period which reads: AS HUMAN BEINGS ARE SORT OF ANIMALS, we wonder how they come into existence on earth.” Another article by Ahmet Mithat was titled Revenge explaining that human beings are brutal by nature. It reads:

“REVENGE IS FAIRNESS AND BRUTAL JUSTICE.  It is so rare to do harm for pleasure. The source of revenge is mostly because of greed, fame and interest.  So, why we think that misdeeds inherent within us are harmful to us?IF MUSK THISTLE IS SAVAGE THAT IS BECAUSE OF ITS CREATION.”

Another article by Hayrullah Efendi titled The creation of human beingswas one of the most popular articles taught at the schools of that period. The article reveals the creation of human beings needs to be explained through science apart from its history beginning from the Prophet Adam.

The Society for Islamic Education (Cemiyet-i Tedrisiye-i İslamiye) was founded by Munif Pasha with the aim of teaching materialism and evolution by publishing scientific journals.

The first periodical titled The Journal of Sciences (Mecmua-yi Fünun) involved articles presenting evolution theory.

These are some of the Societies and Journals defending Darwinism and Materialism of the time:

THE OTTOMAN SOCIETY FOR SCIENCE (CEMİYET-İ İLMİYYE-İ OSMANİYE ) and THE JOURNAL OF SCIENCES (MECMUA-I FÜNUN)

Evolution Theory and materialism were described within the articles titled The Creation and Expansion of Human Beings. Evolution theory was presented at every section.

NEW LITERATURE (EDEBİYAT-I CEDİDE) and WEALTH OF KNOWLEDGE (SERVET-İ FÜNUN)

The Journal Wealth of Knowledge involves the ideas of philosophers defending positivism, materialism and naturalism. This was a popular journal methodically defending materialism in Ottoman Empire.

ICTIHAD LIBRARY AND JOURNAL

With the publishing of Ictihad Journal, the materialistic views were systematically dispersed in Ottoman Empire. The Journal involves presentations on some materialistic thinkers like Epicur, Darwin and Büchner.

LIBRARY OF MODERN SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY (TECEDDÜD-İ İLMİ ve FELSEFİ KÜTÜPHANESİ) and PHILOSOPHICAL JOURNAL OF 20TH CENTURY

The Journal involves materialist, positivist and evolutionist ideas presenting the biological evolution and spirit is nothing more than sole matter.

THE DARWINIST AND MATERIALIST FIGURES OF OTTOMAN EMPIRE

Hoca Tahsin EFENDİ

He was the rector of Darürfünün, which is today’s University of Istanbul. He was famous with his statement that universe and all of the creatures were created through evolution. He tried to combine Darwin’s evolution theory with the Qur’an. He turned the library of the university into a center of Darwinism and materialism.

Ahmet Mithat EFENDİ

He was famous with his articles involving materialism and evolution in many journals. In his article Human beings appear in the World, he explains that human beings gain powers through evolution theory by mentioning Lamarck.  He also wrote more articles presenting Darwinism and these are; Birth, Human Beings, Human Beings appear in the World.

Beşir FUAD

In his articles, he presents that life starts by itself in matter and there is no metaphysics in philosophy.

Abdullah CEVDET

He made great efforts to diffuse Darwinism in Ottoman Empire. He was a religious person in his youth but after studying at Medical School he was impressed by materialism. Then he started to present that materialism would biologically replace religion and introduce evolution theory to young people.

Baha TEVFİK

He openly defended atheism and introduced materialism and Darwinism in Ottoman Empire.  He translated famous atheist and materialist author Büchner’s Matter and Force into Turkish as well as other materialistic works.  He published journals and books to diffuse materialism.

Subhi ETHEM:

He tried to diffuse systematically materialistic views by writing his books and  giving lectures at schools. He published a journal called Human beings and Nature. One of his books called Darwinism.

Memduh SÜLEYMAN

He defended evolution and materialism in his articles. He claimed that all living beings are evolving and they need to fight in order to evolve.  One of his books called Darwinism

Dr. Ethem NECDET:

He wrote a book titled Evolution and Rules. He defended Lamarck. He introduced evolution in organisms, rules of evolution, struggle for life and natural selection in his articles. He defended that life is a permanent struggle by stating that the strong ones with powerful forces would defeat the weak.

Celal NURİ

He published articles to introduce matter is eternal and tried to combine his views with Islam.

Rıza TEVFİK

He adopted Darwin and Spencer as masters. He wrote many articles to introduce Darwinism.

CONCLUSION

As seen here, the figures that direct people were introducing Darwinism in the last days of Ottoman Empire. Although they were few, they provided materialism to be accepted by elites who trained people. When Darwinism and materialism diffuses in the Islam community, its loveless and unfruitfulness point of view will eventually cause the community to be shattered.  Darwinist philosophy denies the belief in God. However Ottoman Empire was powerful because of its deep faith in God.  Therefore, it was unavoidable for Ottoman Empire to collapse due to that moral corruption brought about by Darwinism.


Page 10 of 113« First...89101112...203040...Last »